Tag Archives: design

Disability History Month 2017

To mark Disability History Month this year we’re looking at famous disabled artists who used their art to express What I Need To Say

Michelangelo

“If people knew how hard I worked to get my mastery, it wouldn’t seem so wonderful at all.”

Five years before his death Michelangelo was diagnosed with kidney stones. As a result, art historians have often focused on that and the possible repetition of kidney shaped designs in his work.

However, more recently, the debate has been around whether he also had gout or arthritis and if his work as a painter and sculptor exacerbated or eased his condition.  Portraits of the artist especially those showing his hands have been pored over to determine which condition he had. Michelangelo also included himself as an old man in several of his later works which has provided additional evidence for this debate.

Pietà bandini by Michaelangelo
Pietà bandini by Michaelangelo

Francisco Goya

“Fantasy abandoned by reason produces impossible monsters.”

Goya is often referred to as the last of the old masters and the first of the moderns. In 1793 he developed a severe but unidentified illness which left him deaf. After this, his work  – which had been characterised by portraits of society figures and tapestry designs – began to reflect a darker more pessimistic outlook. His portraits  came close to caricatures reflecting what Goya really saw rather than how his subjects might want to see themselves.

For a period towards the end of his life he lived an almost hermit-like existence in a farmhouse outside Madrid where he produced the famous Black Paintings – dark, sometimes gruesome murals painted in oils directly on the walls.

Francisco de Goya - Tio Paquete (oil on canvas, c.1820)
Francisco de Goya – Tio Paquete (oil on canvas, c.1820)

Frida Kahlo

“Feet, what do I need them for
If I have wings to fly.”

Frida Kahlo is probably best known as a feminist icon, but did you know she was also a disabled person? Kahlo was born with spina bifida, and after contracting Polio as a child was left with her right leg being thinner than her left. Following a severe car accident, Kahlo began painting self-portraits which depicted her impairments in a fearless way.

Frida Kahlo's 1939 oil painting “The Two Fridas.”
Frida Kahlo’s 1939 oil painting “The Two Fridas.”

Paul Klee

“A line is a dot that went for a walk.”

Klee was a German artist active during the first half of the twentieth century. As a child he had been a musical prodigy but as an adult his focused on his art. His theories and writing on the theory of colour were very influential and he taught with Kandinsky at the Bauhaus School of art.  His own work reflected a dry sense of humour as well as a sometimes childlike perspective.

One of his most productive periods was during the early 1930s but at the same time he was persecuted by the Nazis and forced to leave German. It was also during this time that he started to show the symptoms of scleroderma. It limited his output for a time until he modified his painting style to create more bold designs with his alternating moods making the paintings lighter or darker.

Klee’s scleroderma was only diagnosed ten years after his death in 1940 but World Scleroderma day is now on June 29, the date of his death.

Paul Klee Halme 1938
Paul Klee Halme 1938

Henri Matisse

“I have always tried to hide my efforts and wished my works to have the light joyousness of springtime, which never lets anyone suspect the labors it has cost me….”

Henri Matisse was one of the most innovative painters of the twentieth century. In 1941 he almost died from cancer, and after three months in recovery he became a wheelchair user. Matisse credits this period of his life with reenergizing him, even referring to the last 14 years of his life as “une seconde vie,” or his second life.

He adapted his artistic methods to suit life in a wheelchair, making artwork out of coloured paper shapes. You may have seen this work in the exhibition The Cut-Outs which was featured in the Tate Modern in 2014.

La Perruche et la Sirene by Henri Matisse 1952
La Perruche et la Sirene by Henri Matisse 1952

Yinka Shonibare, MBE

“Your head goes crazy if you pursue what ifs.”

Yinka Shonibare is a British conceptual artist with Transverse Myelitis, which paralyses one side of his body. Shonibare uses assistants to make work under his direction, and is famed for exploring cultural identity, colonialism and post-colonialism within the contemporary context of globalisation.

In 2004 he was shortlisted for the Turner Prize for his Double Dutch exhibition, and was awarded an MBE in the same year.

Nelson's Ship in a Bottle by Yinka Shonibare
Nelson’s Ship in a Bottle by Yinka Shonibare

Stephen Wiltshire

“Do the best you can and never stop.”

Wiltshire is an autistic savant and world renowned architectural artist. He learned to speak at nine, and by the age of ten began drawing detailed sketches of London landmarks. Recently, Wilshire created an eighteen foot wide panoramic landscape of the skyline of New York City, after only viewing it once during a twenty minute helicopter ride. The Stephen Wiltshire gallery can be found in Pall Mall, London.

Venice by Stephen Wiltshire MBE
Venice by Stephen Wiltshire MBE

Learn more about our What I need to Say campaign 

Why the fashion industry needs to include disabled people

Meghan is studying fashion at the University of South Wales. For her end of year show she designed a sportswear line which is specifically adapted for different impairments. In this blog she talks about the reasons behind it and her hopes for the future.

At school I was good at Product Design and Art, so I knew I wanted to go into a form of design. I wouldn’t really say I was a big fashion person in the typical sense which is why I wanted to do sportswear – it’s design for a purpose.

Discovering a gap in the market

I’m in my third year now and I have to do a final collection. I started looking into adapted clothing and I discovered a massive gap in the market. A lot of the people I spoke to said that the clothing that is out there is quite unfashionable or really expensive. There’s not enough choice for them in mainstream fashion.

I feel like the fashion industry does forget disabled people. When it comes to adaptive clothing, there are maternity sections in shops but disability is almost completely forgotten about. All the clothing is just t-shirts and trousers, there’s nothing stylish, which is what they want.

 

Molly posing on the catwalk

In some ways it sends a negative message to disabled people regarding sports and they might not feel confident enough taking part in sports or going to the gym, especially if they are wearing something they aren’t comfortable in themselves. But I think there has been a change in attitudes more recently because I have been seeing more representation, but I also don’t know if that’s because I’m involved in it, so I’m noticing it more.

Accessibility can be an issue too. The girl who I have as my visually impaired model, she’s got her own business helping websites and apps make their stuff more accessible for disabled people.

Kyron posing on the catwalk

Developing my sportswear line

After talking to various people, I decided to design pieces to suit four different impairments: visual impairments, dwarfism, amputees and down’s syndrome. I got in contact with a charity called “Follow your Dreams” which is for people with down’s syndrome and learning difficulties. I went to a few focus groups with them to meet people who have down’s syndrome and to get information about what they would want out of clothing and sportswear. I also spoke to Disability Sport Wales.

The Fashion Show

For the show, I had four outfits shown and I used the same models that I’ve worked with on my photo-shoots. I’ve got Tony, who is a world champion athlete, Kyron who is a Paralympian. Molly, who has ushers syndrome and runs her own company – Molly Watts Ltd – and finally, Emily who has down’s syndrome. The show was on 26 May and was a great success.

I really wanted to have all disabled models because otherwise it would completely take away the impact. I just hope that I raise more awareness from it and show people what’s possible.

If you have an experience you’d like to share, get in touch with the Stories team.

Photos by Michaela Harcegova.

5 things we’ve done to improve accessibility on the Scope website

In honour of our accreditation with Shaw Trust (yay!) and our website’s first birthday, Jonathan Ballinger, Scope’s Digital Developer has written for us about some of the things we did to improve the accessibility on our website that may not be obvious.

1. Green focus box

Snapshot of the Scope menu structure, with the Support and Information tab highlighted with a green border

Tabbing through a website can be an arduous task if the focus highlight is non-existent or hard to see. We picked a colour that you’ll rarely see on our site, and ensured that, when tab-focusing through the site, it’ll be crystal clear what you’re focusing on right now.

2. Rational heading structure throughout the content

Snapshot of the cerebral palsy page, showing two types of heading

Our fantastic content authors have gone through all the content from our old site, improving and tweaking it here and there. One of the important tweaks for accessibility was to ensure that headings in our support and information pages, such as this page for cerebral palsy, follow a rational, expected order. We have a single H1 for the title, and then go on to use H2s, H3s, and H4s on that page. This allows screen readers (and web browsers) to process the content effortlessly.

3. Responsive site

Snapshot of the Scope site menu while zoomed out, showing how it is laid out horizontally

However you view our site, 100% zoom or 300% zoom, on the desktop, we’ve got you covered. Our responsive design allows you to view the site on any device you have.

Snapshot of the Scope site menu while zoomed in, showing how it stacks

We paid careful thought to how pages looked when viewed on devices with smaller screens, adjusting where it was necessary.

Snapshot of the cerebral palsy contents block while zoomed out, showing how it is ordered in a grid layout

On smaller screens, we turned this into a responsive stack.

Snapshot of the cerebral palsy contents block while zoomed in, showing how it is a drop down

4. Accessible address lookup field

Due to the nature of our site, the ability to enter your address while filling out a form was one of the features we required. We investigated various services out there in order to try and find a fully accessible address lookup component we could drop in. We weren’t able to find one.

Animation of the automatic search functionality in the address lookup, showing how it can be controlled using the keyboard alone

So we made our own using the address matching API provided by Postcode Anywhere.

5. Keyboard-controllable tabs using ARIA

Animation of the ARIA-enabled tabs functionality on the donations page

We use tabs on occasion. They’re a good way to distinguish between two exclusive groups of information. However, we made sure they are accessible by ensuring that you can tab-navigate to them, and then switch between them using the arrow keys.

So there we have it, five of the many things we’ve done to improve the accessibility of our website. We’re constantly looking at how we can improve people’s experience of our site. If you’d like to find out more or have any suggestions, you can email us at digital@scope.org.uk.